Từ vựng và thực hành bài tập Tiếng Anh 12 sách Thí điểm

docx 21 trang bichngan 26/12/2022 6180
Bạn đang xem 20 trang mẫu của tài liệu "Từ vựng và thực hành bài tập Tiếng Anh 12 sách Thí điểm", để tải tài liệu gốc về máy hãy click vào nút Download ở trên.

File đính kèm:

  • docxtu_vung_va_thuc_hanh_bai_tap_tieng_anh_12_sach_thi_diem.docx

Nội dung text: Từ vựng và thực hành bài tập Tiếng Anh 12 sách Thí điểm

  1. 1. Cỏch dựng mạo từ khụng xỏc định “a” và “an”. • Dựng “a” hoặc “an” trước một danh từ số ớt đếm được. Chỳng cú nghĩa là một. Chỳng được dựng trong cõu cú tớnh khỏi quỏt hoặc đề cập đến một chủ thể chưa được đề cập từ trước. Ex: - A ball is round (nghĩa chung, khỏi quỏt, chỉ tất cả cỏc quả búng): Quả búng hỡnh trũn. - He has seen a girl (chỳng ta khụng biết cụ gỏi nào, chưa được đề cập trước đú): Anh ấy vừa mới gặp một cụ gỏi. a. Dựng "an” trước: - Quỏn từ "an" được dựng trước cỏc từ bắt đầu bằng nguyờn õm (trong cỏch phỏt õm, chứ khụng phải trong cỏch viết). Bao gồm: - Cỏc từ bắt đầu bằng cỏc nguyờn õm “a, e, i, o”. Vớ dụ: an apple (một quả tỏo), an orange (một quả cam). - Một số từ bắt đầu bằng “u”: Vớ dụ: an umbrella (một cỏi ụ) - Một số từ bắt đầu bằng “h” cõm: Vớ dụ: an hour (một tiếng) - Cỏc từ mở đầu bằng một chữ viết tắt: an S.O.S/ an M.P b. Dựng "a" trước: - Dựng “a” trước cỏc từ bắt đầu bằng một phụ õm. Chỳng bao gồm cỏc chữ cỏi cũn lại và một số trường hợp bắt đầu bằng "u, y, h". Ex: A house (một ngụi nhà), a year (một năm), a uniform (một bộ đồng phục) - Đứng trước một danh từ mở đầu bằng "uni " và "eu" phải dựng "a": Vớ dụ: a university (trường đại học), a union (tổ chức), a culogy (lời ca ngợi). - Dựng trong cỏc thành ngữ chỉ số lượng nhất định như: a lot of/ a great deal of/ a couple/ a dozen. Ex: I want to buy a dozen eggs. (Tụi muốn mua 1 tả trứng.) - Dựng trước những số đếm nhất định thường là hàng ngàn, hàng trăm như: a/ one hundred - a/ one thousand. Ex: My school has a thousand students. (Trường của tụi cú một nghỡn học sinh.) - Dựng trước “half” (một nửa) khi nú theo sau một đơn vị nguyờn vẹn: a kilo hay a half, hay khi nú đi ghộp với một danh từ khỏc để chỉ nửa phần (khi viết cú dấu gạch nối): a half - share, a half - holiday (ngày lễ chỉ nghỉ nửa ngày). Ex: My mother bought a half kilo of apples. (Mẹ tụi mua nửa cõn tỏo.) - Dựng với cỏc đơn vị phõn số như : 1/3 ( a/ one third), 1/5 (a/ one fifth), 1/4 (a quarter) Ex: I get up at a quarter past six. (Tụi thức dậy lỳc 6 giờ 15 phỳt.) - Dựng trong cỏc thành ngữ chỉ giỏ cả, tốc độ, tỉ lệ: a dollar, a kilometer, an hour, 4 times a day Ex: John goes to work four times a week. (John đi làm 4 lần 1 tuần.) 2. Cỏch dựng mạo từ xỏc định “the” • Dựng “the” trước một danh từ đó được xỏc định cụ thể về mặt tớnh chất, đặc điểm, vị trớ hoặc đó được đề cập đến trước đú, hoặc những khỏi niệm phổ thụng, ai cũng biết. Ex: - The man next to Lin is my friend. (Trong cõu này cả người núi và người nghe đều biết đú là người đàn ụng nào). Người đàn ụng bờn cạnh Lin là bạn của tụi. - The sun is big. (Mặt trời chỉ cú một). Mặt trời rất lớn. • Với danh từ khụng đếm được, dựng “the” nếu núi đến một vật cụ thể, khụng dựng “the” nếu núi chung. Ex: - Chili is very hot. (Chỉ cỏc loại ớt núi chung). Ớt rất cay. - The chili on the table has been bought. (Cụ thể là ớt ở trờn bàn) Ớt ở trờn bàn vừa mới được mua. • Với danh từ đếm được số nhiều, khi chỳng cú nghĩa đại diện chung cho một lớp cỏc vật cựng loại thỡ cũng khụng dựng "the". Ex: Students should do homework before going to school. (Học sinh núi chung) Học sinh nờn làm bài tập về nhà trước khi đến trường. II. REVIEW THE SIMPLE PAST & PAST CONTINUOUS. 1. Simple past (Quỏ khứ đơn) a. Với động từ "to be":
  2. • Nguyờn õm + S + ED thỡ -ed thường được phỏt õm là /d/ như praised, chased, raised Ngoại lệ: - Một số tỉnh từ sau cú cỏch phỏt õm của -ed là /ɪd/: naked /'neɪkɪd/, learned /'lə:nɪd/, aged /eɪdʒɪd/, beloved /bɪ'lʌvɪd/, blessed /'blesɪd/, crooked /'krʊkɪd/, ragged /'rổɡɪd/, sacred /'seɪkrɪd/, wretched /'retʃɪd/, - Phần ngoại lệ: Cú một chữ cú -ed tận cựng được phỏt õm là /əd/. Chữ đú là hundred /'hʌndrəd/ 2. Past continuous (Quỏ khứ tiếp diễn) a. Form (+) S + was/ were + V-ing +O (-) S + wasn't/ weren't + V-ing + O (?) Was/ were (not) + S + V-ing + O? b. Uses (Cỏch sử dụng) • Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra tại 1 thời điểm xỏc định trong quỏ khứ. Ex: I was sleeping at 12 o'clock last night. • Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra thỡ một hành động khỏc xen vào hành động đang xảy ra dựng QKTD; hành động xen vào dựng QKĐ. Ex: I was studying when he came in. • Diễn tả nhiều hành động xảy ra đồng thời trong quỏ khứ (đi với while). Ex: Yesterday evening, my mother was cooking while my father was reading books. c. Advs (Trạng ngữ nhận biết) At (specific time) From to last night yesterday, one year ago At this/ that time At the moment Past simple While/ When Past continuous Past continuous d. Những động từ khụng chia ở cỏc thỡ tiếp diễn: Một số động từ chỉ cảm xỳc (like, love ) hay (know, believe, want) khụng được chia cỏc thỡ tiếp diễn (kể cả hiện tại tiếp diễn hay quỏ khứ tiếp diễn). Verbs of thinking believe, doubt, guess, imagine, know, realize, suppose, understand. Verbs of the senses hear, smell, sound, taste. Verbs of possession belong to have (meaning possess), own, possess. Verbs of emotion dislike, hate, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish. Verbs of appearance appear, seem. Others contain, depend on, include, involve, mean, measure, weigh, require. Ex: Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Jane was at my house when you arrived. PART 2: PRACTICE A. PHONETICS I. Find the word which has a different sound in the part underlined. 1. A. accident B. jazz C. stamps D. watch 2. A. this B. thick C. maths D. thin 3. A gas B. gain C. germ D. goods 4. A. bought B. nought C. plough D. thought 5. A. spear B. gear C. fear D. pear II. Choose the word which has a different stress pattern from the others. 1. A. remember B. influence C. expression D. convenient 2. A. medium B. computer C. formation D. connection
  3. 4. In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for work undertaken in the ___ to overcome poverty and distress. A. battle B. struggle C. movement D. proposal 5. At the age of 18, Mother Teresa was ___ permission to join a group of nuns in Ireland. A. required B. sought C. obtained D. given 6. Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his work in helping to end racial ___ in South Africa A. integration B. segregation C. achievement D. exploitation 7. Princess Diana fought for her children on any level so they could reach their full ___ as human beings and in their public duties. A. requirement B. condition C. capacity D. potential 8. Meeting my favorite celebrity at the airport was certainly a ___ of luck that wouldn't have happened if I'd arrived five minutes later. A. number B. piece C. stroke D. name 9. Steve Jobs might hardly imagine that only a year later the company ___ impressive victory with Apple II, one of the first highly successful ___ personal computer. A. attain / massly-produced B. see / mass-produced C. taste / massive produced D. achieve / mass-producing 10. Ms. May, 59 years old, is the country's longest-serving home secretary in half a century, with a ___ for seriousness, hard work and above all, determination. A. fame B. reputation C. achievement D. maintenance 11. Theresa May is one of a growing number of women in traditionally ___ British politics rising to the upper position of leadership. A. male-dominated B. man-domination C. male-dominating D. man-dominatedly 12. Marilyn Monroe is widely ___ as one of most influential figures in American culture. A. classified B. depicted C. admired D. regarded 13. May's sports hero was Geoffrey Boycott, a solid, stubborn cricketer who ___ in playing the long game. A. qualified B. specialized C. engrossed D. indulged 14. Like many other Britain's prime ministers, May ___ a place at Oxford. A. admitted B. permitted C. won D. constituted 15. She has been quite critical ___ the media focusing on her fashion instead of her achievement as a politician. A. with B. for C. of D. in 16. Marilyn Monroe was ___ for Golden Globe Best Actress Award for Bus Stop (1956). A. offered B. nominated C. awarded D. rewarded 17. Marilyn Monroe ___ to a heavy drug use, which had a damaging impact ___ both her mental and physical health. A. resorted - on B. abused - in C. overexploited - to D. related - for 18. Their family were wealthy but they encouraged their children to work hard and take nothing ___. A. for sure B. for good C. for granted D. for charge 19. When Bill Gates saw an opportunity to found his own company, he dropped ___ Harvard without finishing his course. A. into B. by C. around D. out of 20. Despite the pervasive press intrusions into her private life, Princess Diana remained very popular because people could identify ___ her. A. in B. for C. with D. as 21. Elvis was ___ shy and as a youngster was not keen on performing in public. A. relatively B. respectively C. virtually D. almost
  4. A. worthless works of art B. invaluable property C. excellent qualifications D. excellent works of art 10. Da Vinci studied all aspects of life and his far-reaching investigations and discoveries sought to show an underlying unity of the universe. A. insignificant B. finite C. extensive D. excessive V. Indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 1. Da Vinci from an early age began to display his remarkable academic and artistic talents. A. striking B. extraordinary C. run-of-the-mill D. exceptional 2. Joachim Lafosse confirms his exceptional talent with "Free Student", a film that is more conventional in its form. A. out of the ordinary B. abnormal C. usual D. odd 3. Van Gogh became one of the most celebrated artists of the twentieth century. A. admired B. honored C. acclaimed D. obscure 4. Michael stood out for his exceptional enthusiasm and soft, infectious musical voice. A. attract attention B. be inconspicuous C. be conspicuous D. stick out a mile 5. In recent years, Madonna has continued to tour, release albums and engage in humanitarian work. A. throw oneself into B. become uninvolved in C. have a hand in D. take part in 6. Henry VIII was equally notorious for his six marriages and several scandalous love affairs. A. anonymous B. infamous C. celebrated D. ill-famed 7. The works Da Vinci did finish were often spectacular masterpieces, such as his paintings The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa. A. magnificent B. out of this world C. unimpressive D. remarkable 8. The death of Diana princess had a profound impact on the British public and those in other countries. A. far-reaching B. superficial C. deep-seated D. heartfelt VI. Put the verb in the past simple tense or the past continuous. 1. When I (arrive) ___arrived___ at this house, he still (sleep) ___was still sleeping___. 2. The light (go) ___went___ out while we (have) ___were having___ dinner. 3. Bill (have) ___was having___ breakfast when I (stop) ___stopped___ at this house this morning. 4. She (wash) ___was washing___ up when Tam (arrive) ___arrived___ at this house. 5. As we (cross) ___were crossing___ the Street, we (see) ___saw___ an accident. 6. Tom (see) ___saw___ a serious accident while he (stand) ___was standing___ at the bus stop. 7. The children (play) ___were playing___ football when their mother (come) ___came___ back home. 8. The bell (ring) ___rang___ while Tom (take) ___was taking___ a bath. 9. He (sit) ___was sitting___ in a car when I (see) ___saw___ him. 10. We (clean) ___were cleaning___ the house when she (come) ___came___ yesterday. VII. Add "A/ AN/ THE/ X" to each of the following sentences. 1. He made his first attempt to engage in sporting activities four years ago with __the__ support of his family. 2. He was __the__ most talented football player that our school had produced in years. His talent for ___x___ football was great. 3. He did __the__ Black Mountain hike with his friends, but had to check his blood glucose levels every four hours. 4. Do you know Professor Phan Huy Le whose great achievement was his books on ___ the ___ history of Viet Nam in ___ the ___ 19th century? 5. ___ the ___ following year, he took part in ___ the __ Melbourne Sunset run to raise funds for __ an ___ orphanage. 6. He wishes to straighten up and lead ___a___ respectable life. He would like to be socially acceptable due to his good behavior.
  5. 3. In 1997, molecular biologist L. Mark Lagrimini of Ohio State University cloned the gene in that codes for a type of peroxidase found in tobacco plants. A. In B. in that C. a type of D. found 4. Alpine Sainte nards are too good at following the scent of humans, even in snow, that they are used by ski patrols as rescue dogs. A. too B. following C. used D. as 5. Booker T. Washington, head of the first industrial school for African Americans, was as popular with Southerners than he was with Northerners. A. first industrial B. was C. popular with D. than he X. Indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges. 1. "How do you like your steak done?" – “___.” A. I don't like it B. Very little C. Well done D. Very much 2. "Oops! I'm sorry for stepping on your foot" – “___.” A. Never mind B. You don't mind C. You're welcome D. That's fine 3. Anne: "Fancy a bite to eat?" - Barbara: “___” A. No thanks, I've just had some. B. No thanks, I've just had something. C. No thanks, I'm not neatly very thirsty. D. No thanks, I'm trying to give up. 4. Receptionist: "Good morning." - Chris: "Good morning. I've come to ___ Mrs. Dabria." A. see B. visit C. do business with D. hold a talk with 5. Arm and Mary are studying in their classroom. Ann: "Can I borrow your dictionary?" – Mary: “___” A. I'm afraid I can't B. Here you are! C. I think so. D. It doesn't matter. 6. Jack and Joe are discussing how to make salad for dinner. Jack: “___” - Joe: “How about putting some grapes in it, instead?” A. We could fry some onions with it too. B. I'd rather just have some bread, thanks. C. Let's put some pieces of apple in the salad. D. Good idea! I'll go and make one. 7. - Would you mind lending me you bike?" – “___.” A. Yes. Here it is B. Not at all C. Great D. Yes, let's 8. Havy: "Thanks for your help, Judy." - Judy: “___.” A. With all my heart B. Never remind me C. It's my pleasure D. Wish you C. READING I. Choose the word or phrase from the box that best fits the blank space in the following passage. milestones prolific like won funded breakthroughs making revolutionary Elon Musk is one of the greatest and most (1) ___ prolific ___ modern inventors and is responsible for monumental advancements in futuristic technology (2) ___ like ___ renewable energy and space travel. Many of his innovations seem to be right out of a science-fiction movie, but throughout his career he has brought about huge scientific (3) ___ breakthroughs ___. After (4) ___ making ___ his first fortune from the internet payment service 'PayPal', he invested $100 million in his space travel company, 'SpaceX' and began building satellites, launch vehicles and other spacecraft both for NASA and for his own company, creating new (5) ___ milestones ___ with his privately (6) ___ funded ___ spacecraft. Many of his (7) ___ revolutionary ___ ideas and inventions focus on space travel, renewable energy, commercial electric cars and other technologies, that look to a future where fossil fuels and other resources may be in shorter supply. His futuristic and visionary ideas have (8) ___ won ___ him both scientific and philanthropic recognition and awards. II. Choose the word or phrase among A, B, C or D that best fits the blank space in the following passage. Gia Long was the first emperor of the Nguyen dynasty as well as the (1) ___ father of the modern nation of Vietnam. Born as Nguyen Phuc Anh, he was the nephew of the last Nguyen lord who ruled over
  6. C. because it is a tragic story of a gifted writer D. to outline the influences on O. Henry's writing 3. The word "imprisonment" in paragraph 2 is closet in meaning to ___. A. captivity B. escape C. insult D. punishment 4. What is the passage primarily about? A. The life and career of William Sydney Porter B. The way to adopt a nickname. C. O. Henry's influence on American literature. D. The adventures of O. Henry. 5. The author implies which of the following is true? A. Porter's wife might have lived longer if he had not left her in Austin when he fled. B. Porter was in poor health throughout his life. C. O. Henry is as popular in many other countries as he is in America D. Porter would probably have written less stories if he had not been in prison for three years. 6. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? A. Porter left school at 15 to become a pharmacist B. Porter wrote a column for the Houston Daily Post called "Rolling Stone". C. The first recorded use of his pseudonym was in Austin D. Both of Porter's wives died before he died 7. The word "pseudonym" in the passage refers to ___. A. William Sydney Porter B. O. Henry C. Athol Estes D. the Aunt Lina IV. Read the passage, and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D for each question. A large number of inventions require years of arduous research and development before they are perfected. For instance, Thomas Edison had to make more than 1,000 attempts to invent the incandescent light bulb before he finally succeeded. History is replete with numerous other examples of people trying, yet failing to make inventions before they eventually succeeded. Yet some inventions have come about not through hard work but simply by accident in most cases, when someone unintentionally invented something, the inventor was attempting to create something else. For example, in the 1930s, chemist Roy Plunkett was attempting to make a new substance that could be used to refrigerate items. He mixed some chemicals together. Then, he put them into a pressurized container and cooled the mixture. By the time his experiment was complete, he had a new invention. It was not a new substance that could be used for refrigeration though. Instead, he had invented Teflon, which is today most commonly used to make nonstick pots and pans. Similarly, decades earlier, John Pemberton was a pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia. He was attempting to create a tonic that people could use whenever they had headaches. While he was not successful in that endeavor, he managed to invent Coca-Cola, the world - famous carbonated soft drink. Scientists have also made crucial discoveries by accident when they were conducting experiments. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, an antibiotic in this manner. He discovered some mold growing in a dish with some bacteria. He noticed that the bacteria seemed to be avoiding the mold. When he investigated further, he determined some of the many useful properties of penicillin, which has saved millions of lives over the past few decades. Likewise, in 1946, scientist Percy Spencer was conducting an experiment with microwaves. He had a candy bar in his pocket, and he noticed that it suddenly melted. He investigated and learned the reason why that had happened. Soon afterward, he built a device that could utilize microwaves to heat food, the microwave oven. 1: Which title best summarizes the main idea of the passage ___. A. History's Most Important Inventions B. Accidental Inventions and Discoveries C. How to Become a Great Inventor D. You Don't Always Get What You Want 2: In paragraph 1, the word "arduous" is closest in meaning to ___. A. detailed B. tough C. specific D. constant 3: In paragraph 2, the word "endeavor" is closest in meaning to ___. A. research B. dream C. request D. attempt
  7. 7. The accident happened as a result of the driver's not paying attention to the road. A. If the driver would have paid attention to the road, the accident hadn't happened. B. Had the driver been paid attention to the road, the accident wouldn't have happened. C. If the driver had been paying attention to the road, the accident wouldn't have happened. D. Had the accident not happened, the driver would not have had to pay attention to the road. 8. "Shall I help you do the dishes, Carlo?" said Robert. A. Robert suggested helping Carlo with the dishes. B. Robert suggested to help Carlo do the dishes. C. Robert offered Carlo to help do the dishes. D. Robert offered to help Carlo do the dishes. 9. If I hadn't had so much work to do I would have gone to the movies. A. Because I had to do so much work I couldn't go to the movies. B. I would go to the movies when I had done so much work. C. A lot of work couldn't prevent me from going to the movies. D. I never go to the movies if I have work to do. 10. "Why don't you get your hair cut, Gavin?" said Adam. A. Adam advised Gavin to cut his hair. B. Gavin was suggested to have a hair cut. C. It was suggested that Adam get Gavin's haircut. D. Adam suggested that Gavin should have his hair cut. II. Indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of the following sentences. 1. He did not remember the meeting. He went out for a coffee with his friends then. A. Not remember the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. B. Not to remember the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. C. Not remembered the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. D. Not remembering the meeting, he went out for a coffee with his friends. 2. They left their home early. They didn't want to miss the first train. A. They left their home early so as to not miss the first train. B. They left their home early for fear that they wouldn't miss the first train. C. They left their home early so as not to miss the first train. D. They left their home early in order that not to miss the first train. 3. The traffic is so heavy. It will take us at least an hour to get there. A. Unless the traffic is heavy, it will take us at least an hour to get there. B. As the traffic is so heavy, it will take us at least an hour to get there. C. The traffic was so heavy that it took us an hour to get there. D. We will spend more than an hour to get there to avoid heavy traffic. 4. There was no poor performance. Moreover, that of the Russian dancers was certainly the best. A. The best performance was the one of the Russians while some of the others were poor. B. The Russian dancers were well-worth watching but the others weren't. C. All the dancers but the Russian performed poorly. D. They all danced well, but the Russian did the best. 5. I started training to be an accountant six months ago. I've got more months to go and then I have to take exams. A. By the time I've taken my exam, I will have started training to be an accountant for a year. B. By the time I take my exam, I will have been in training to be an accountant for a year. C. By the time I took my exam, I would have trained to be an accountant for a year. D. By the time I've taken my exam, I will be training for a year. 6. Why did Danny decide to enter the marathon? Danny's totally unfit.